Wednesday, October 30, 2019

Business diversification of a confectionary food and beverage business Essay

Business diversification of a confectionary food and beverage business of United Kingdom - Essay Example This report assesses the trends and pattern of international trade between these two countries especially trades and investment in the beverage industry. Implication of the international institutions on its initial entry into Indian market will be analysed. Finally, this report will recommend whether and how the company can diversify its business into Indian market. Introduction Globalization has stimulated many successful firms in all many countries for diversification of their business into foreign market. It allows two different ways for international business expansion for these successful companies in their domestic countries. One is trade and another foreign direct investment. These factors have influenced one UK based Food and Beverage Company named Crazy Food Private Limited to decide start its international diversification. The company has decided to diversity into a developing country i.e. India. The company has successful portfolio that consist of processed food, ready to eat food, snacks foods as confectionary items and soft and energy drinks as beverage items. It has well developed two popular brands in UK market, Crazy Bite and Crazy Cola. The company wants to launch these two popular brands in India and it has noticed this confectionary market in India to be growing more in next five years. So, this report will provide a detailed investment analysis for this company to assess the viability of its international business diversification into Indian market. Answer a) National business system India is a developing country having a growing economy that is 12th largest economy in the world by nominal value of gross domestic product. The country has approximately more than 17% of world population among which more than 200 millions can be segmented as high consumption oriented urban people. This segment of people is having above average income level and higher purchasing power. This is one of the major strengths of the country for attracting foreign busi ness institutions to enter into Indian market. According an analysis by World Bank, India is 4rth largest country in the world in terms of overall consumption and purchasing power of the total population of the country. 40 percent of this 200 million people are youth (IFC, n.d.). Therefore, growing purchasing and consumption trend of this large segment of people is the key attraction of this company in terms of potential customer base as youth are usually the most potential target customer for any confectionary food and beverage producer. Apart from the huge customer base, next important key resources of the country has is sufficient youth labour and expertise. This is one of the most important recourses of the country which has become the main attraction of the foreign companies especially companies from developed countries like Crazy Food. The company can get sufficient labour in comparatively very low wage rate as compared to UK market rate due to the higher difference of currenc ies of these two countries. As a food and beverage company, Crazy Food needs huge work force for production and packaging, bottling etc. National political environment of India is stable as current government and only one major opponent do not have many conflicts that can affect any areas of business national

Monday, October 28, 2019

Psychology and Family Law Essay Example for Free

Psychology and Family Law Essay Introduction: The Rise in Divorce Rates.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Rasul began his paper on the economics of child custody with an observation and analysis of the American family. For him, the last thirty years had been witness to dramatic transformations involving the American family (Rasul, 2006, 1).   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   This dramatic change since the 1970s consists in the composition of American families. Where thirty years ago, more than half of the American families consisted of a father, mother, and child or children, today such composition only forms one in five families (Rasul, 2006, 1).   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Such significant change is attributed to one factor alone, which is divorce. Rasul observes that the instances of divorce have risen dramatically over the years, such that it affects more than one million children every year (Rasul, 2006, 1). In the United Kingdom, another industrialized region, forty-one percent of marriages end up in divorce within fourteen years (Lamb, Sternberg, Thompson, 1997, 394).   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   While divorce rates also increased in industrialized countries other than the United States, and the divorce rates in the United States already reached a plateau, the fact remains that the United States Bureau of Census estimated in 1992 that more than forty percent of first marriages in the country is bound to end in divorce. Moreover, the relative decline in divorce rates is accompanied by an equivalent effect, which is the number of people cohabiting without marriage and nonmarital child bearing. These other arrangements cause the decline in divorce, but end in the same situation of a broken family. (Emery, Sbarra Grover, 2005, 22).   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   The increase in divorce rates can also be attributed to the certain developments since the 1970s, which include the growing tolerance of society for divorce. Moreover, society is no longer strictly insistent on the maintenance of stereotypical family arrangements (DErrico Elwork, 1991, 104). Changes in Family Law.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   As a consequence of these dramatic changes, changes in the field of family law also occur. These changes can be found both in substantive and procedural law (DErrico Elwork, 1991, 104-105).   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Substantive law has changed due to observations of the effects of restrictive and punitive laws on divorce. Thus, many jurisdictions already steered away from the rule that one of the spouses must have committed some transgression before they can be granted divorce. Now, the prevalent rule in most jurisdictions is in accordance with the â€Å"no-fault† doctrine. This doctrine allows married couples to file for divorce on the simple ground of â€Å"irreconcilable differences (DErrico Elwork, 1991, 104).†   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Another change in substantive law and policy can be found in the gender-neutral stance taken by courts in cases of divorce. The past decades illustrated a bias, manifested in the assumption that mothers have more inherent capability to take care of their children. Today, such an assumption is no longer strongly held. Rather, courts are now showing neutrality in gender and the determination of a family law case now hinges on the consideration of the â€Å"best interests of the child (DErrico Elwork, 1991, 104-105).†   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Another change in substantial law and policy is manifested in the observation that there is a growing predilection over self-determined divorce and child custody arrangements. This trend of change is largely attributable to the belief that divorce is a private matter that must be left amongst them to be resolved. This belief is a break away from the previous prevailing thought about the states interest in protecting the sanctity of marriage through the regulation of its dissolution (DErrico Elwork, 1991, 104).   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   These changes in substantive law on divorce and family law necessarily caused changes in the procedural aspect of the law. Thus, the increased ease by which couples could seek divorce and the option of individualizing post divorce arrangements heavily increased the dockets of courts with divorce cases. This led the courts to encourage divorcing couples to find other alternative means of resolving their issues (DErrico Elwork, 1991, 105).   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   There are also other factors that make alternative means of resolving family disputes and divorce issues more appealing. The lack of necessity for proving fault in a divorce action removed the need to adjudicate family issues. Moreover, the removal of the presumption in favor of the mothers capability to care for the child involved courts into making a determination about vague issues, such as love and care, which could be difficult to measure in a court setting. These factors all contributed to the growing popularity of other modes of dispute resolution, such as mediation (DErrico Elwork, 1991, 105). Divorce Mediation.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   One such alternative mode of dispute resolution recently applied in family law is mediation. Thus, divorce mediation, under which process a neutral third party intervenes to help the couple settle their differences through negotiation, receives the most attention lately (DErrico Elwork, 1991, 105) especially among parents who wish to get divorced (Emery, Sbarra Grover, 2005, 22).   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   When applied to help couples arrive at self-determined arrangements on matters of divorce and child custody, mediation is believed to cause four benefits, namely, â€Å"(a) more satisfaction with the terms of agreements, (b) greater compliance with agreements, (c) less postdivorce conflict between ex-spouses, and (d) better postdivorce emotional adjustment (DErrico Elwork, 1991, 105).†   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Indeed, mediation posed itself as a solution to the ever-increasing rates of divorce in the Untied States, as well as an alternative to ineffective and traditional methods of dispute settlement, such as litigation (Emery, Sbarra Grover, 2005, 22). Mediation is becoming the alternative method of dispute resolution of choice since it provides professional help to divorces, which have a high probability of getting acrimonious. Thus, there are only few couples that could manage to suffer a divorce in amicable terms. In a survey of two California counties, it was found that 24 percent of divorces therein required professional intervention, while 25 percent involved intense conflict (Emery, Sbarra Grover, 2005, 23).   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Mediation is also popular among couples seeking divorce because unlike court action or litigation, it has the ability to facilitate administration of justice and reduce cost, specifically in terms of money and time. Moreover, adversary settlement procedures are now believed to cause problems involving post separation family relationships, arising from parental conflict and divorce. (Emery, Sbarra Grover, 2005, 23). Comparison of Divorce Mediation and Adversary Settlement.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   It is not uncommon for mediation to get compared from other forms of dispute settlement, such as adversary settlement. In a study conducted by Emery, Sbarra and Grover, a comparison was made between mediation and adversary settlement through random assignment (2005, 25). They randomly approached families that were interested in contested custody hearing and offered them a mediation program as an eleventh hour settlement attempt (Emery, Sbarra Grover, 2005, 25).   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   This study yielded positive results with respect to the time of settlement of issues. Thus, the authors found that cases assigned to mediation were settled in half the time that settlement using adversary settlement occurred. On the other hand, there are other studies that conclude that mediation is better over adversary settlement in terms of cost, because the former is less expensive than the latter. In addition, it was observed that there is a â€Å"trend for greater compliance with child support orders among nonresidential parents who mediated† (Emery, Sbarra Grover, 2005, 27).   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   They also observed that there are more families coming from mediation that go back in order to update or change their existing arrangements. The authors view this in a positive light, saying that parenting plans should be viewed as living agreements that must be changed in accordance with corresponding changes in the stakeholders lives. Such changes are best made by going back to the mediation process (Emery, Sbarra Grover, 2005, 27).   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   In addition, Emery, Sbarra and Grover noticed in the follow-up sessions to their study that most of their subjects who belonged to the mediation group were more open to the idea or suggestion of changing their original agreements. They are also the ones who actually adjusted their arrangements more often than those subjects who belonged to the adversary system (Emery, Sbarra Grover, 2005, 28).   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   The authors noted that the willingness of the subjects to modify their original arrangements, coupled with the actual facts of modification, is a positive finding. Aside from the fact that the changes had been far from chaotic, they prove that parents who underwent mediation had become more flexible in accommodating changes that are important in the lives of their children and their own (Emery, Sbarra Grover, 2005, 28).   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   The authors also looked into another factor to compare mediation with the adversary process. This factor is party satisfaction. They noted that each kind of method of dispute settlement has certain strengths. For example, the adversary systems known strength is that it ensures that the rights of both parties are protected. On the other hand, mediation is known for being more understanding of the feelings of the parties involved (Emery, Sbarra Grover, 2005, 28).   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   However, this main difference, which had looked so glaring before study, disappeared in view of the results that showed that mediation consistently got high rates of party satisfaction over the adversary system, even if the assessment was based on the criterion that is known for being the strength of such system. More importantly, the authors observed that such high rate of party satisfaction remains relatively unchanged among different time durations. Thus, a party may be satisfied with mediation six weeks after mediation, but surprisingly, parties remain satisfied even after a period of more than a year (Emery, Sbarra Grover, 2005, 28). Important Elements of Mediation.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Mediation remains on the top of the list of effective methods of dispute settlement, especially in divorce rates, because it boasts of certain elements that ensure the process’ success. One such element is its capability of enlisting the cooperation of parents in order to take the long view, and consider the best interests of their children in the future (Emery, Sbarra Grover, 2005, 32).   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Considering that divorce cases often involve high conflict, open hostility, and tension, it is difficult to call upon parents to cooperate with each other. However, mediation allows parents to take a look at the future of their relationship, maybe not as a couple, but as permanent parents (Emery, Sbarra Grover, 2005, 32).   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Mediation is also effective in educating divorcing parents and couples about emotions. These emotions involve not only those felt by the couple involved, but more importantly, those of their child or children. There are several techniques by which the goal of emotional education can be achieved, but one effective way is through the mediator’s reflection of a child’s possible emotional reactions to the crisis situation using his self as a medium. For example, the mediator could say how uncomfortable and scary an experience becomes when the couple starts fighting each other. Thus, mediation allows parents to realize that their bickering actually affects the emotions of people around them, and thereby stop thinking about themselves. It is apparent therefore that mediation does not necessarily provide therapy for the emotional problems of the parties, but it allows them to understand the feelings and emotions involved in order to help them control such emotions in the best possible way and, in the process, achieve a good plan for the family (Emery, Sbarra Grover, 2005, 33).   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Finally, mediation is an effective process because it helps parties avoid treating each other as adversaries. A business-like approach such as the one commonly used in mediation allows the parties to approach issues in a distant and less emotional state. Moreover, not treating each other as adversaries avoids the road to strained relationships that only cause the wounds of the divorce to get worse (Emery, Sbarra Grover, 2005, 34). Effects of Divorce on Children   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   The trend in favor of divorce and single parenthood in industrialized countries has raised concerns about the effects of such family arrangements to children involved. Unfortunately for children, divorce often leads to negative immediate effects, such as serious emotional and psychological disturbance. Considering that psychological symptoms such as emotional disturbance, loneliness, depression, anger, helplessness, and many others are common among the parents or couples involved, it should be expected that such negative effects would be experienced more severely by the children trapped inside the crisis (Lamb, Sternberg, Thompson, 1997, 394).   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   It is worth noting that the difficulty of children in dealing with their parents’ divorce is aggravated by the fact that the parents involved in the crisis are often too preoccupied with their personal emotions such that they fail to give much-needed support to their children. Worse, these parents often fall in the temptation to make too much demand that worsen the situation for their children (Lamb, Sternberg, Thompson, 1997, 395).   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Another problem common to children in divorce situations is the economic problem brought about by the need to maintain two separate residences, and the common situation of mothers who are more economically-challenged than the fathers. However, such situation is avoided or minimized in cases where the parents resolve their conflicts and work out a way of providing for the educational, emotional, and economic needs of their children (Lamb, Sternberg, Thompson, 1997, 395-396). Conclusion.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Divorce and single parenting is increasingly becoming common in industrialized regions such as the United States and the United Kingdom. This trend is caused by several factors and, in turn, causes several issues, practices, and concerns in many different levels, such as the family, children, substantive and procedural law, and alternative dispute resolution mechanisms (Rasul, 2006, 1; DErrico Elwork, 1991, 104).   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Divorce causes deleterious effects on the parties. However, the negative impact of divorce is more squarely felt by the affected children who, in their tender age, are forced into adjusting and coping with the emotional stress and burden necessitated by divorce proceedings (Lamb, Sternberg, Thompson, 1997, 394).   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Such hardships could be minimized by different factors, such as cooperation between parents in providing emotional, economic and educational support to their children. Parents also have the option of minimizing or totally avoiding antagonism and hostility in the divorce proceedings by choosing to undergo mediation rather than court litigation. Indeed, mediation provides many advantages and avoids the stress involved in court action (Emery, Sbarra Grover, 2005, 22). References DErrico, M. G. Elwork, A. (1991). Are Self-Determined Divorce and Child Custody   Ã‚   Agreements Really Better? Family and Conciliation Courts Review 29(2), 104-  Ã‚   113.  Emery, R. E., Sbarra, D. Grover, T. (2005). Divorce Mediation: Research and Reflections. Family Court Review 43(1), 22-37.  Lamb, M. E., Sternberg, K. J., Thompson, R. A. (1997). The Effects of Divorce and    Custody Arrangements on Childrens Behavior, Development, and Adjustment.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Family and Conciliation Courts Review 35(4), 393-404.  Rasul, I. (2006). The Economics of Child Custody. Economica 73, 1-25.

Saturday, October 26, 2019

Contemporary Cosmology and Philosophy and the Beginning of the Universe :: Natural Science

Contemporary Cosmology and Philosophy and the Beginning of the Universe ABSTRACT: Since the 1970s both in physics and cosmology, there has been a controversy on the subject of the ‘beginning of the universe.’ This indicates that this intriguing problem has reached scientific consideration and, perhaps, a solution. The aim of this paper is to try to answer the question as to whether the origin of the world has slipped out of the hands of philosophers (and theologians), and passed in its entirety into the realm of science, and whether science is able to solve this problem by itself. While presenting the main views in this dispute, I try to show also that metaphysics, philosophy of nature and epistemology provide important premises, proposals and methods that are indispensable for a solution. These premises concern such issues as the extremely subtle problem of the sense and existence of ‘nothing,’ the problem of extrapolation of local physics onto the large-scale areas of the universe, the epistemological status of cosmological pr inciples, as well as problems of the origins of the laws of nature. This last issue is entangled in the difficult problem of the ‘rationality of the world’ and the problem of overcoming the dichotomy of laws and preconditions, according to which the conditions and laws are independent of each other. I. Introduction One of the determinants of scientific rationality is the condition that science undertakes only those problems whose solution is within the range of possibilities of research methods which science currently applies or is able to apply. Simply speaking, scientists are attracted by solvable problems. If this is really so then the fact of widespread discussions since the 70s among physicists and cosmologists on the subject of "the beginnings of the Universe" seem to be an obvious sign that also this unusually intriguing problem has matured to its scientific solution. The purpose of my paper is to attempt to answer the question whether the problem of the origin of the world currently evades philosophers (and theologians) and passes completely to the realm of science (i.e. physics, astronomy and cosmology), or whether science by itself is not able to solve this problem. In the latter case one would have to acknowledge that metaphysics, the philosophy of nature and epistemology, provides important premisses, assumptions and methods indispensable for this solution. II. Two Approaches in Cosmology The task cosmology has to perform is to explain the structure of the Universe as it is observed.

Thursday, October 24, 2019

Islam and Religious Group Essay

Select at least 1 religious and 1 ethnic group not your own from the list below. †¢Religious groups (based on http://religions.pewforum.org/pdf/affiliations-all-traditions.pdf) oChristianity †¢Evangelical Protestant †¢Mainline Protestant †¢Historically Black Churches †¢Roman Catholic †¢Latter-Day Saints (Mormons) †¢Jehovah’s Witnesses †¢Orthodox (Greek, Eastern) oJudaism (Orthodox, Conservative, or Reform) oBuddhism (Theravada or Mahayana) oIslam (Sunni, Shia, Sufism) oHinduism †¢Ethnic groups (based on divisions in U.S. Census Bureau documents) oAsian (Asian descent) oBlack (African descent) oHispanic and Latino (South or Central American descent) oPacific Islander (Polynesian descent) oWhite (European descent) Part III Answer the following questions in 150 to 250 words each about the religious group you selected: †¢How does your selected religious group differ from other religious groups (such as in their beliefs, worship practices, or values)? †¢What has been the experience of your selected religious group with others that do not share its beliefs or practices? †¢In what ways has the religious group you selected contributed to American culture? †¢Provide specific examples of prejudice or discrimination your selected religious group has experienced. †¢What were the sources of this prejudice or discrimination? †¢Does what you’ve learned about this religious group help you understand it? In what ways? Answer the following questions in 150 to 250 words each about the ethnic group you selected: †¢How does your selected ethnic group differ from other ethnic groups (such as differences in ancestry, language, or culture)? †¢What has been your selected ethnic group’s experience with other ethnic groups? †¢In what ways has the ethnic group you selected contributed to American culture? †¢Identify some specific examples of prejudice or discrimination that your selected ethnic group has experienced historically. †¢What were the sources of this prejudice or discrimination? †¢Does what you’ve learned about this ethnic group help you understand it? How? Part IV Answer the following questions in 150 to 250 words each: †¢How are the prejudice and discrimination experienced by your selected religious group and ethnic group similar? †¢How are they different? †¢Can you draw any conclusions about discrimination from this comparison

Wednesday, October 23, 2019

Quality of Patient Care: Nursing-Sensitive Indicators Essay

Nursing-sensitive indicators play a large role in bedside nursing today. They encompass the care given to patients, how it is given, policies, procedures, and different levels of staffing, education, and experience (ANA). They also provide a means to measure patient satisfaction. Not all involved with patient care will share the same knowledge and experience as can be seen in the scenario of Mr. J. How could nursing-sensitive indicators have changed his outcome? How can data collected on nursing-sensitive indicators advance quality care for all patients? One of the risk factors for acquiring a pressure ulcer, a deep vein thrombosis, or hospital acquired pneumonia is immobility. There can be several causes of immobility and in this case it is the use of restraints. Mr. J has developed a pressure ulcer due to lying flat on his back in bed restrained. When the nurse’s aide assisted him back to bed, lying on his back again, she showed she did not have a clear understanding of a pressure ulcer as a nursing-sensitive indicator. She should have propped him up with pillows so the reddened area was relieved of pressure. Had she or the nurse possessed that knowledge they would have been assessing his skin frequently and repositioning him in bed often enough so as to prevent such an event from occurring. The patient’s need for restraints could be reassessed as well. Is he trying to get out of bed unassisted and is considered a fall risk due to his hip fracture and mild dementia? Perhaps a bed alarm or a sitter would have been better alternatives. Either would have allowed Mr. J to move independently in bed and he would have been less likely to develop a pressure ulcer. Restraints are often used without considering alternatives  first. They can cause more injury than good and decrease patient satisfaction. In this case, it may be difficult to gauge Mr. J’s satisfaction but his daughter certainly wasn’t satisfied with his care. It is possible his hospital length of stay has been increased by the staff’s lack of knowledge regarding nursing-sensitive indicators. At this point the staff must take action to correct the situation and hopefully heal the pressure ulcer. How can hospitals use data collected based on nursing-sensitive indicators to increase the quality of patient care? Hospitals measure certain occurrences such as falls and pressure ulcers. Nursing care directly impacts these. If the number is higher than the national average, for example, a hospital may perform a study to determine the cause and then implement interventions to try to reduce the occurrence of falls or pressure ulcers. By analyzing data collected after an intervention was applied, the hospital can determine if the outcome was achieved or not. Once an intervention proves successful a new policy can be implemented throughout the hospital, decreasing falls or pressure ulcers, leading to improved quality care for all patients and greater patient satisfaction (AmericanSentinelUniversityBlog). Another nursing-sensitive indicator is patient satisfaction with overall care. In Mr. J’s scenario I would say the patient’s family was completely dissatisfied. As a Jewish rabbi he requested a kosher meal and was served pork cutlet due to an error with his order. Were he not mildly demented he may have noticed what he had been served, but he did not and ate it. When the daughter was notified the next evening she discovered the nursing staff had kept it from her and that the nurse was not sensitive to the needs of her father. This was just another complaint in several that had occurred over the last six months. The physician and administrator were notified. This is a serious offense and may prompt the Jewish community to seek care at another hospital. In order to resolve this issue and keep Mr. J’s trust and that of his daughter, several things must take place. The nurse and physician caring for the patient should acknowledge the error and offer a heartfelt apology. They should also assure the family, steps are being taken  to prevent this from reoccurring. If the orders are entered through an electronic health record, IT may need to get involved to determine where the error is occurring in the order process in order to have it filled correctly. The dietary supervisor should be notified and perhaps find a new way to indicate clearly if a tray contains a kosher meal. A sign on the patient’s door could indicate his meal preference so that all entering, whether it is a dietary tech, a nurse’s aide, or the nurse, will clearly see it. That way, even if the patient is confused and alone, as Mr. J was, there will be no mistake made. The issue here is patient satisfaction. Mr. J’s family may still leave dissatisfied but this event may help implement new policies respecting ethnic preferences and the incorporation of them in a patient’s care. In healthcare today, nursing-sensitive indicators are important to hospitals in that they provide a gauge to measure the quality of care patient’s receive. The more knowledge a nurse has of nursing-sensitive indicators, the greater quality care she can provide to produce better outcomes for her patients, resulting in their improved satisfaction. Reference Page American Nurses Association. (2015, January). Nursing-Sensitive Indicators. Retrieved March 12, 2015, from Nursing World: http://www.nursingworld.org/mainmenucategories/ThePracticeofProfessionalNurses/Research-Measurement/The-National-Database/Nursing-Sensitive-Indicators_1 American Sentinel University Blog. (2011, November 02). Health Care On Call. Retrieved March 12, 2015, from American Sentinel University Blog: http://www.americansentinel.edu/blog/2011/11/02what-are-nursing-sensitive-quality-indicators-anyway/ .

Tuesday, October 22, 2019

My Opinion essays

My Opinion essays In my opinion, I would in no way want to live in medieval, the time period in which Alyce lived in. Because finding a home and cures for diseases were very difficult. In addition, education was saved only for the rich. Many people were homeless because they could not get a job to make money to buy a house. The conditions of being homeless were horrible. There was no way to get any education because no one had any care enough for the home less to give them any free learning. If you were lucky, you were able to get a low paying job getting stale bread and old cheese as pay. Moreover, being poor caused all sorts of medical ales. The medical conditions were disgustingly bad. Doctors rarely helped those who lived in villages. They had no real medicines, but only natural remedies that they created. Idea that every substance in nature held some sort of power account for a large variety of substances. Natural functions, such a sneezing were thought to be the best way of maintaining health. When there was any build up of one humor, or body fluid, it could be removed through sweat, tears, feces or urine. When the natural systems broke down, illness occurred. Preformed at last resort, surgery was known to be successful in cases of breast cancer, fistula, hemorrhoids, gangrene, and cataracts, and scrofula. The most common form of surgery was bloodletting, which was to restore the balance of the humors. As well as the homeless and medical conditions, the levels of educational opportunities were scarce. There were very few teachers, and if you ever got the chance to have a teacher, the prices were over the top. The majority of the entire population had no learning of math or literature. Most did not even no the alphabet. As a matter of fact, only wealthy was appreciated enough for the opportunity to have an education. None of this would make me want to live in that time period any more than I do now. ...

Monday, October 21, 2019

How Carbon-14 Is Used To Date Artifacts

How Carbon-14 Is Used To Date Artifacts In the 1950s W.F. Libby and others (University of Chicago) devised a method of estimating the age of organic material based on the decay rate of carbon-14. Carbon-14 dating can be used on objects ranging from a few hundred years old to 50,000 years old. What Is Carbon-14? Carbon-14 is produced in the atmosphere when neutrons from cosmic radiation react with nitrogen atoms: 147N 10n → 146C 11H Free carbon, including the carbon-14 produced in this reaction, can react to form carbon dioxide, a component of air. Atmospheric carbon dioxide, CO2, has a steady-state concentration of about one atom of carbon-14 per every 1012 atoms of carbon-12. Living plants and animals that eat plants (like people) take in carbon dioxide and have the same 14C/12C ratio as the atmosphere. However, when a plant or animal dies, it stops taking in carbon as food or air. The radioactive decay of the carbon that is already present starts to change the ratio of 14C/12C. By measuring how much the ratio is lowered, it is possible to make an estimate of how much time has passed since the plant or animal lived. The decay of carbon-14 is: 146C → 147N 0-1e (half-life is 5720 years) Example Problem A scrap of paper taken from the Dead Sea Scrolls was found to have a 14C/12C ratio of 0.795 times that found in plants living today. Estimate the age of the scroll. Solution The half-life of carbon-14 is known to be 5720 years.​ Radioactive decay is a first order rate process, which means the reaction proceeds according to the following equation: log10 X0/X kt / 2.30 where X0 is the quantity of radioactive material at time zero, X is the amount remaining after time t, and k is the first order rate constant, which is a characteristic of the isotope undergoing decay. Decay rates are usually expressed in terms of their half-life instead of the first order rate constant, where k 0.693 / t1/2 so for this problem: k 0.693 / 5720 years 1.21 x 10-4/year log X0 / X [(1.21 x 10-4/year] x t] / 2.30 X 0.795 X0, so log X0 / X log 1.000/0.795 log 1.26 0.100 therefore, 0.100 [(1.21 x 10-4/year) x t] / 2.30 t 1900 years

Sunday, October 20, 2019

The Baby Boomers guide to reentering the job market

The Baby Boomers guide to reentering the job market Attention Baby Boomers: Although you’re technically approaching the age when people typical start thinking of retiring from the work world, that doesn’t mean you can’t be a valuable and productive part of a company or business. Or perhaps you’ve already officially retired and have decided that you’d like to re-enter the workforce in some capacity, either due to financial need or simply to keep busy and add new value to your daily routine. Baby Boomers have been traditionally characterized as a hard-working, roll up your sleeves, â€Å"can do† generation, so it stands to reason that they’d want to stay active and continue contributing to the world. If this sounds like you, and you’d like to re-enter the job market and kick off a successful job search, then keep reading!   Whatever the case may be, those of you who are looking to re-enter the job market may discover that the job search game has changed drastically in recent year s- everything from rapid technological advancement to the shifting ways businesses hire to meet their staffing needs has contributed to this evolution. But that doesn’t mean you should give up your goal of finding meaningful employment at this stage of your life, or submit to frustration because of how different everything is now.The truth is, as a Baby Boomer you have a lot to offer the professional world, including experience, finely-honed skills, and a lifetime of valuable wisdom, and it makes sense that you’d want to share it with the next generation of workers. In addition, your skills set obviously presents a positive value proposition for the companies who recognize their strength and value. But in order for you to connect to the perfect job that will allow you to best leverage your background and abilities and make positive and meaningful contributions in the workplace, you first need to get past the job search hurdle. Consider using the following strategies an d advice to help you get there.3 steps to a successful job hunt for Baby BoomersOwn your ageSome Baby Boomers who are looking to enter the workforce may initially feel the urge to somehow â€Å"mask† their ages when applying for jobs- scrubbing out or obscuring key dates on a resume is a common approach. Not only is this a short-sighted approach (unless you plan to go to interviews in disguise), but also, why hide the decades of valuable work and life experience you’ve acquired? Instead, wear your age as a badge of accomplishment and sing its praises during the job search process.Also, establishing your ability and willingness to be flexible and learn new things- a common concern regarding older workers- is a good way to offset any initial hiring trepidation. Use your cover letters and resumes as opportunities to convince hiring personnel that your age is an asset, not a liability, and that a company that hires you will stand to benefit from everything you bring to the table. It’s also an opportunity to showcase your confidence and honesty, which savvy companies will recognize and appreciate.Get used to new toolsJust as you probably had to learn how to use new equipment and technology during your prior lifetime of work experience, you’re going to have to get comfortable with using the new tools of job searching. You may have quickly realized this after opening your local newspaper and searching for the now nonexistent want ads section: job searching has almost exclusively moved to the digital realm. You’ll need to leverage online tools if you want to make the most of your time and find a great new job. Sure, you can also do things the old-fashioned way- some businesses still put help wanted signs in their windows and may appreciate an inquiry from someone who stops in to say hello looking for some honest work- but most jobs these days are found online.But this notion shouldn’t fill you with dread. Many of today’ s online job search tools have been designed to make job searching easier, not harder. If you’re comfortable with the basics of using a computer (going online and sending emails), then do a quick search and check out the most popular career networking and job search sites in your area and field of interest. If you’re less comfortable online, seek out the help of a friend or family member. Your local library is a great resource if you’re in need of some guidance. Trust us, after polishing up your resume, exploring the ins and outs of online job searching and applying is a worthy investment of your time.Build and use your networkA great thing about having decades of work experience under your belt is that you probably have a small galaxy of contacts you can leverage if you’re looking to get back into the work world. A great early step when planning a job search is to think about your years of work experience. Make a list of people whom you can contact regar ding possible employment opportunities. Even if a contact isn’t aware of a job offer in their immediate orbit, they may know someone they can connect you to in or adjacent to your desired field. Just reach out as much as possible and see how your network and possibilities can quickly grow. And don’t get discouraged if every contact doesn’t lead to a job offer- just stay resilient and determined. Consider your time networking as just one tool in your well-rounded job search toolkit.If you’re an older job seeker who’s looking to jump back into the job market, invest some time in learning the new rules and tools to job searching and set yourself up for success. Good luck!

Saturday, October 19, 2019

Managing Property Businesses Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words - 1

Managing Property Businesses - Essay Example based businesses are easy to operate and have no fuss, than one must think again, yes there are exceptions but one is likely to find same fuss in the service based business as in manufacturing business. A service based business that is going to be discussed is â€Å"property business†, it sounds simple to hear it, but very difficult if all things are kept in mind while planning for a property business, the first impression that might appears after listening â€Å"property business† is perhaps small business, with simple operations though it can be very tough to operate it, the property business should be started keeping in mind following few factors. Property businesses provide pure services to the clients, the dealer performs the role of a middleman or a broker, there is a seller and a buyer, the seller or buyer contacts the dealer and the dealer responds to the seller or buyer on a particular property if available, though it has also been seen that people usually buy properties at their own and than sell it to buyers having buying power, so to get the buyer’s and seller’s attention the Location of the office is important as it should be in clear view to the clients or otherwise you should have done heavy investment in advertising to keep them aware. If the business is relocated than there must be so many reasons for that, one mentioned earlier might be location, the other one may be high overheads and perhaps a threat of bankruptcy, or may be the firm was unable to collect the receivables from clients and thus the firm was in loss, so the firm should reduce its operating costs, may be by eliminating employees, hiring people on commission basis rather than going for fixed salaries and so, it would definitely help the firm to operate itself with in the budget. When the business consists of a lot of dealing than the communication side must be very strong, one can say that in such businesses it is all about to convince or persuade the clients, and let them

Friday, October 18, 2019

Quantitative Methods Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1750 words

Quantitative Methods - Essay Example Walmart, Inc uses online customer survey feed back form regarding employees’ courtesy, quality of product and services, competitive price issues, overall satisfaction level to know the perceptions of the consumer. It is very important for a retailer to know its consumers well or it might loss the share of the market in the competing environment of today. Walmart, Inc is renowned for having happy and satisfied set of customers. It is possible only because they know their customers well. Quantitative analysis generates statistical data through the large scale survey research using different methods like structured interviews and questionnaires. The researcher tries to reach as many respondents and collect information to the highest extent possible. The quantitative analysis is mostly used by construction companies, financial market advisory company. They believe more on statically data, analysis them and finds out the future requirements, predicts the market for opportunity for exploitation. Like Gannet Company Inc analyze on financial data and publishes all the financial information of different companies. From this information, many investors find out the company of investment, where their money can grow and provide a higher return. So, it is important to analyze the data in a quantified manner so that investors can easily understand and make their choice. Science is an intellectual search. The scientific approach is essential for analyzing the data which needs an inductive reasoning to derive to general principles based on specific observations. Generalization is powerful weapon to make prediction. To control the dependent and independent variables, scientific research is mandatory. The research done with the help of scientific approach is more reliable and valid. The scientific approach minimizes influence of biased prejudices in the experiments. Companies like Merriman Market Analyst uses scientific way to analyze data from daily stock

Israel and the Teva Company Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Israel and the Teva Company - Assignment Example Israel played a supportive role in Teva development. The government of Israel invested heavily in the education system. Therefore, over the years, I think that the country was able to equip its population with high technical skills which enabled them to work in different manufacturing companies. As a result, the company had qualified personnel at its disposal. These were people who had the necessary skills to steer growth and development of the company. In addition, the employees were well versed in different aspects that they need to consider in order for the business to penetrate the global market. Therefore, through little training by the US professors especially on the American culture, they were able to use the business models that were taught in school in order to penetrate the US market. Israel played a comforting role towards the growth of Teva Company. Although the expansion of any company in the overseas market is important in order to reduce the risks and uncertainties ass ociated with concentrating on a single market, every company must dominate a specific market before trying to capture other markets. Personally, I believe that Teva was able to gain comfort after segmenting the local market. The country gave support to the company’s products through ensuring that many of the prescribed drugs came from the company. The company received numerous contracts with government hospitals. This gave the firm confidence to explore the external market as it was assured of local support.

Thursday, October 17, 2019

Article by robert wright Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Article by robert wright - Essay Example The dominant culture to occupy the world as a standard mode of carrying activities has been the bone of contention in this area. Wright on his view states that the Americans have been on the fore run of ensuring that their values are appreciated all over the world. On the other hand, this has initiated reactions in different parts of the world leading to attacks such as terrorism (Wright, 2). This has been realized in the recent past with increases attacks on America. The attacks include organized terror groups who target America in the effort to kill their dominant position in the world. In the process there have been challenges in handling terror group and rebellious countries as evident with Iran. Iraqi had organized terror groups that looked into putting down the American domination efforts. Considering this it is worth noting that America has had difficult time in doing away with such groups despite it being a super power. Dealing with Iraqi in the war had to take lots of efforts and technology as the Americans also suffered losses during the terror attacks executed by the Saddam led group. Both Kaplan and Wright apply the historical occurrences that have determined the progress and behavior of the various dominating powers. By this, Americans have been viewed as those who lead in ideologies and principles followed by most parts of the world. On the same note, they bring in Christianity as the religion that seeks to dominate the world originating from the west, especially America. The recognition of Christianity as the religion to be adopted right from the historical perspective defines it all. Both Kaplan and Wright puts it on the perspective that globalization has been a historically linked event that is still to be towed. Generation after generation keeps applying their efforts towards ensuring that the whole world follows a given form of operation.

The impact of medical issues in psychaitric patients Research Proposal

The impact of medical issues in psychaitric patients - Research Proposal Example High percentage of emergency department cases by psychiatric patients indicates a higher-level vulnerability of the patients to critical health conditions. The population is further vulnerable to physical illnesses that that induce higher mortality rate than in normal people and the statistics suggest that preventive and treatment measures against physical illnesses among psychiatric patients lack. A problem therefore exist for identification of a suitable measure that can help in protecting the population from physical illnesses, with the aim of reducing the number of psychiatric patients who are admitted for emergency care and reducing the mortality rate of the population segment (Hert, et. al. 52, 53). The evidence based practice problem aims at effectiveness of a highly structured treatment unit in protecting psychiatric patients from illnesses and in treating the patients in case of occurrence of physical diseases. While psychiatric patients form a significant percentage of patients in emergency care units, nurses and physicians in the units lacks expertise for dealing with the patients’ conditions. Even though the personnel may have adequate nursing skills, the patients require additional competence that can overcome stigma and fear to offer satisfactory care to the patients. Emergency Nurses Association explains that measures such as better arrangement of care space together with availability of psychiatric nurse and wider training can help improve quality of care to the patients (Emergency Nurses Aassociation 3, 4). The statistics are consistent with reports that the population records higher mortality rates and suggests that better care initiatives can resolve the problem (Hert, et. al. 52, 53). A â€Å"highly structured treatment environment† for treatment of psychiatric patients is the recommended intervention (Bos, et. al. 528). Research on effects of such as strict environment, for psychiatric patients who fail to

Wednesday, October 16, 2019

Article by robert wright Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Article by robert wright - Essay Example The dominant culture to occupy the world as a standard mode of carrying activities has been the bone of contention in this area. Wright on his view states that the Americans have been on the fore run of ensuring that their values are appreciated all over the world. On the other hand, this has initiated reactions in different parts of the world leading to attacks such as terrorism (Wright, 2). This has been realized in the recent past with increases attacks on America. The attacks include organized terror groups who target America in the effort to kill their dominant position in the world. In the process there have been challenges in handling terror group and rebellious countries as evident with Iran. Iraqi had organized terror groups that looked into putting down the American domination efforts. Considering this it is worth noting that America has had difficult time in doing away with such groups despite it being a super power. Dealing with Iraqi in the war had to take lots of efforts and technology as the Americans also suffered losses during the terror attacks executed by the Saddam led group. Both Kaplan and Wright apply the historical occurrences that have determined the progress and behavior of the various dominating powers. By this, Americans have been viewed as those who lead in ideologies and principles followed by most parts of the world. On the same note, they bring in Christianity as the religion that seeks to dominate the world originating from the west, especially America. The recognition of Christianity as the religion to be adopted right from the historical perspective defines it all. Both Kaplan and Wright puts it on the perspective that globalization has been a historically linked event that is still to be towed. Generation after generation keeps applying their efforts towards ensuring that the whole world follows a given form of operation.

Tuesday, October 15, 2019

Clueless is the latest cinematic adaptation Essay

Clueless is the latest cinematic adaptation - Essay Example Director Amy Heckerling presents a sequence of events parallel to the novel that indicates to the viewer that her work is a modern cinematic portrayal of the original classic. The movie Clueless features all of the underlying themes seen in the novel, including, as Denise Kohn points out, â€Å"the fallibility of matchmaking and flirtation; the danger, in the words of the novel, of a girl ‘having rather too much her own way’ and thinking ‘too well of herself† (Kohn, 1997). Interestingly though, the new version portrays its modern women characters as less emancipated and conservative than what is found in Emma. Consistent with the modern times, the story of the lead protagonist Cher is also suitably modified. The director has paid attention to detail in making analogous connections between the Victorian era and the modern era. For example, the art of photography replaces the more painstaking art of portraiture; fashionable convertible cars serve as apt substi tutes for horse-driven carriages; the traditional British fancy dress balls were replaced by high school partying. Even such aspects of the book as Mr. Woodhouse’ problems with his digestion and Emma’s concern for his well-being were transfigured into Chers imposition of a low-cholesterol diet on her father. The references to the original work do not stop there. The sport-car owning high school student represents the new American aristocracy, as depicted by the character of ‘Frank Churchill’.

Monday, October 14, 2019

Recreation Evaluation Essay Example for Free

Recreation Evaluation Essay The therapeutic recreation process is a systematic method of planning and providing services for individuals with disabilities. The process is based on a systems theory approach. The system is designed for a guide for a well-defined, goal-oriented purpose to the activity or program being provided. It involves four phases: assessment, planning, implementation and evaluation. Use of the therapeutic recreation process is not dependent on location, but on systematic and consistent use of assessing, planning, implementing and evaluating services for people with disabilities. The process is applied in settings like hospitals, long-term facilities and useful in leisure education and recreation participation settings, like park and recreation agencies and schools. Delivering therapeutic recreation services in community setting has been successful when the therapeutic recreation process is applied. It is not the setting that determines the use of the therapeutic recreation process, but the needs of the clients. Using the therapeutic recreation process allows the therapeutic recreation specialist to individualize within recreation programs designed specifically for people with disabilities and to systematically develop support plans for inclusive recreation programs. The therapists conducts an assessment that identifies the client’s abilities and limitations by asking a series of questions related to social skills and observing their interactions with their peers. Information is gathered not only for the client, but also from family, caregiver, social worker, friends, and vocational counselor to provide thorough information prior to participation so that the client needs may be addressed. The purpose is to determine the needs of the individual in relation to the independent functioning in recreation settings. Materials include questions designed to determine an individual’s needs related to independent recreation participation. Program descriptions clarify activity content, participation requirements, possible risks, and intended outcomes that aid in determining these needs. Thorough and accurate information about the individual is necessary, even when participation is self initiated and voluntary. Without accurate information the quality of an assessment is compromised. Programs and activities may be pre-planned; assessments enable the therapeutic recreation specialist to individualize interventions, accommodations, and teaching strategies within group activities. For example, the leisure education program in which the client is registered may have a group goal to improve socialization skills through participation in group activities, but the client will have a goal more specific to their needs, such as the client will use socially appropriate means to identify deficits in specific activity skill (i. e. sports), as well as general skill (i. e. social skills). In addition, assessments for an individual participating in a specialized recreation program may differ from an assessment used with someone who is interested in participating in an inclusive recreation program. Assessments applied to those participating in separate programs often ask for more detail about the person’s level of functioning that an assessment used to analyze participation in inclusive recreation would. A unique aspect of a community recreation assessment is that it can be a lifelong process. Unlike treatment settings, such as hospitals where a therapeutic recreation specialist may only work with and individual for a brief period of time, people with disabilities who participate in community recreation programs often remain involved in programs for many years. From the assessment of the client’s social skills, the therapist discovered that the client had trouble initiating and sustaining conversations. For example, the client would stand by themselves and watch their peers rather than joining in conversations. When the client’s peers would include them in conversations, the client would walk away. The therapeutic recreation specialist found that the client often feels like they do not know what to say to others. The planning phase of the therapeutic recreation process can guide a therapeutic recreation specialist in developing individualized goals and objective for the client and then select recreation activities to meet the goals and objectives. The planning component is helpful for identifying activities to meet goals and objectives that promote independent recreation functioning. Some activities have the potential for improvement of functioning (i. e. warm water aquatics) in treatment and rehabilitation settings. The therapist selects a twelve week leisure education program that includes social skills training components to meet the objectives outlined for the client. Leisure education focuses on the development and acquisition of leisure-related skills, attitudes, and knowledge so a person can express him/herself through leisure. Community recreation therapeutic recreation programs provide and ideal environment to apply leisure education goals by teaching how to access and utilize community recreation resources, as well as how to develop skills related to independent recreation functioning. The therapists forms goals, develops objectives, specifies activities (i. e. social skills) and determines a means of evaluation. According to Austin and Crawford (1996), the implementation phase of the therapeutic recreation process is the action phase and involves carrying-out the individual or group program plan. The therapeutic recreation specialist carries out the social skills and dance program, focusing on group and individual goals, For example, the group will be taught how to appropriately ask someone to dance and the client will be taught ways to initiate conversations with dance partner. The implementation phase involves coordinating and executing recreation activities proposed in the plan, as well as documenting information about the individual (i. e. his or her responses), the program (i. e. time of day, duration), and the activities (i. e. competitive vs.learning). Implementation of the individual plan in the recreation setting requires focusing to social (i. e. attitudinal), programmatic (i. e. adaptations), and environmental (i. e. accessibility) issues. For example, general recreation programs in which people with disabilities can be included may not be structured to accommodate people with a variety of disabilities. The therapists may implement numerous adaptations or accommodations according to the individual’s disability and have knowledge and skills to make these adaptations to facilitate participation. Other factors that could affect the implementation of the individual plan include inconsistent attendance of a participant with a disability, unanticipated facility/environmental issues, lack of support from family/caregivers, inconsistency of general recreation staff, and inappropriate program placement. The therapist conducts evaluations on the client’s skills at the end of the twelve week program by asking the same series of questions asked in the assessment phase and conducting an observation. The purpose of the evaluation phase is to assess the client’s response to the planned program and the plan’s effectiveness and determine whether revisions are necessary. While conduction the evaluation, the therapists can interview the participant, speak with family members or caregivers, review documentation, administer questionnaires, and observe the participant while engaged in the activity. Conducting a mid-term evaluation will aid in the clients process and help in necessary adjustments to a person’s program plan. Thorough and accurate documentation is a critical component of the evaluation process. An important concern with evaluative documentation in the settings is that the information is made available to others and is ultimately utilized. For example, at the conclusion of the leisure education program, the client may choose to enroll in a new program with different general or therapeutic recreation staff. Assessment and evaluation information should be passed on to the staff of the client’s new program to ensure continuity of goals and objectives. Applying the evaluation phase of the therapeutic recreation process in the therapeutic recreation settings can be advantageous in that information tracking can be done over a long period of time, enabling in-depth, longitudinal evaluations. However, a limitation of conducting the evaluation phase of the therapeutic recreation process I the settings is that pieces of information gathered at different points in time may become fragmented and not unified in one location. The therapist’s role is to compile the various evaluative elements into comprehensive evaluation document to be used across specialized and inclusive contests over time. RESOURCES Austin, D. R. , Crawford, M. E. (1996). Therapeutic recreation: An introduction. (2nd ed. ). Boston: Allyn and Bacon. Howe-Murphy, R. , Charboneau, B. (1987). Therapeutic recreation intervention: An ecological perspective. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, Inc. Sylvester, C. (Ed. ). (1996). Philosophy of therapeutic recreation: Issues and ideas. Volume II. Ashburn, VA: National Therapeutic Recreation Society Peterson, C. A. , Gunn, S. L (1984). Therapeutic recreation program design: Principles and procedures. (2nd ed. ). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, Inc RECREATION EVALUATION RCSM 351 12/07/2010 PEGGY PEARSON.

Sunday, October 13, 2019

Differences Between Actor Network Theory And Social Construction Sociology Essay

Differences Between Actor Network Theory And Social Construction Sociology Essay Here are few differences between Actor Network Theory and Social construction of technology that I found from various analysts point of view. To start with, I would like to jot down the basic difference between Actor network theory and the theory of social construction of technology. Actor network theory (ANT) considers both technical determinism and social determinism, i.e. it does not stick by the idea that technology shapes the society or the society shapes the technology (latour, Reassembling the social: an introduction to actor-network-theory, 2005). Social Construction of technology (SCOT) theory follows the ideas that technology is emerged from the social interaction of social group, which can be called social determinism. (Klein, H. K. Kleinman, D. L., 2002) Both of these theories involve participants in process of shaping the network or in shaping the outcome, known as Actors. Actors involved in ANT are humans and non-humans which are treated equally as separation between the two are difficult, as it cannot be said who played the major role. (latour,1997). The actors involved in SCOT are the Relevant Social group which includes people sharing the same interest in shaping the technological artifact (Bijker, Hughes, Pinch, 1989). Actors in ANT need to be performing constantly to keep the network flowing without any lag or hick up. SCOT does not follow a strict principle on the performance of the actors or the groups. If a certain relevant social groups involvement or influence is less than the other group, in that case it only brings in a few changes in the outcome of the technological artifact. (Klein, H. K. Kleinman, D. L., 2002) Talking about the aim of these theories, ANT is more about how the networks are formed rather than why the y are formed. It does not predict the outcome of the socio-technical artifact at any point. These entities are known as mediators where the input by the actors cannot predict the outcome; rather it multiplies or deletes the input/object passing through network known as tokens or quasi objects. (Wikipedia) Whereas SCOT illustrates how the social surrounding which include RSG and other actors give rise to a particular artifact. Right from the beginning the outcome is predicted or decided. It acts more like an intermediate unlike ANT. It does not really matter if there are changes that come through in the social surrounding while building the artifact, the previously assumed idea of the outcome would still remain the same. (Klein, H. K. Kleinman, D. L., 2002) If we study ANT carefully, the actors involved in it are not just objects but an association of other elements which self constitutes a network. To look like a single point actor, these elements are simplified or Black boxed. That means the network actors are open to new ideas and their contents can be reconsidered (Gidding, 1999). The idea of reconsidering the content does not exist in SCOT. It limits the influence of the RSG once the interpretive flexibility starts to gradually diminish. This causes it to reach the rhetorical closure, thus the alternative idea of a new design is eliminated. (Klein, H. K. Kleinman, D. L., 2002) Following the actor, this method in ANT suggest that the actors set their framework and the limits of the network by themselves. Actors in ANT are able to make their presence individually felt by the other actors (Tatnall Burgess, 2002). As discussed earlier, actors can be thought of as a black box, which has many actors hiding one behind other. So basically all the actors can be found at one place or it can be said that all the actors form a single point actor and this effect is known as Punctualisation (latour, Reassembling the social: an introduction to actor-network-theory, 2005). When the same method is compared to SCOT, actors are followed who are relevant to the technology and that may lead to another actor who is also relevant to that technology. The process is continued till no new actors pop-up. This causes the interpretation to come to a closure. Both of these theories have a positive and a negative side of their own. The biggest drawback of SCOT is that it ignores the effect of the technology after it has come into existence by social determinism. The technological artifact might have been developed for a particular purpose. But it is hard to expect the end-users to use it the way it is suppose to be used. In that case, it means that the effect of the technology after is has come into existence from a social determinism method, is slowly shaping the society in its own way. That brings us back to technological determinism. (Klein, H. K. Kleinman, D. L., 2002) As we know RSG solves the technical problems, seeking solutions, etc. We do not know who decides the which group are relevant social group and with the same the social interest. It fails to include the groups that have no voice and also the groups that will be affected by the results of technological change and also the groups that have been stamped down and excluded (Prell, Christina, 2009). It also fails to explain the circumstances where one of the relevant social groups seriously disagrees to either to the design or technological system or artifact, etc. There is no explanation on how the theory would handle the disagreements of the groups. Many critiques has pointed out on the same fault of theory that it portrays all the social groups on the same level or sharing equal authority or power. There is a slight fault with the interpretive flexibility once it reaches the closure. It does not look back for further interpretations in the future. (Hard, 1993) Actor-network theory treats humans and non-humans equal. It has been argued by many critics that how can a non-human be assigned to be an agency. For example, a technology can only be identified because we differentiate it from human actors. Technologies do not speak for themselves nor do they exist outside of processes of human assumption. Analytically speaking there is no such non-human actor to be described by ANT. ANT assumes that all actors, which include both humans and non-humans, are equal within the network, and have the same power. This leaves no space for power instability is left. Thus the power struggles within the network. ANT case studies leads to a lot of useless descriptions that seem pointless. (Whittle Spicer, 2005) Another major drawback of ANT it gets very difficult to follow the actors as the researcher would have to get into the depth of the topic for investigating a particular case without knowing where they will lead. As the actors are black-boxed, the researcher is following only one actor and would not know if it would open up further possible investigation. One of other weakness about ANT is that the actors, ANT requires both the actors to be performing constantly to keep the network flowing. Even if one fails, the whole system fails. (learning-theories, 2008) Talking about the strength of SCOT, one of the plus point of SCOT is how it overcomes one problem by finding a better way to adopt the technology. For example. Bicycle. There was a lot of debate on the safety and the way it was built or looked. But then, the eventually they adopted it because of the fact that they were fast when it came to speed. They overlooked the problem by relating it to another better plus point to the technology. To think about it, end of the day we (humans) are the once who are going to use the technology. So doesnt it make more sense that we shape the technology the way we want it? Based on our application we can shape the technology, SCOT is something that does exactly the same. Unlike ANT even if one if the actors fail to perform, the outcome of the system or the technological artifact does not fail. In that case that particular actor or the group will have less influence in the process of making the artifact. (Bijker, Hughes, Pinch, 1989) Actor-network theories main strength would be how it overcomes both social and technical determinism. This makes sense in a way because in a particular invention, it is hard to say who played the major role, humans or non-humans. For instance, let us take the example of how the laptop came into existence. If we have a look into it, the invention results from human and technology. The technical aspect of the laptop is achieved by the technical team which in-turn is influenced by the social background. Therefore, what seems to be social is partly technical and what seems to be technical is partly social. (latour, Reassembling the social: an introduction to actor-network-theory, 2005) Following the actors might have been criticized in the case of ANT but it has its own positive side too. When compared to SCOT, it does not have to approach each and every actor of the same revelant group. In ANT all the actors act as a single point actor which can be found in the Black box. (Gidding, 1999)

Saturday, October 12, 2019

The Seaweed Is Always Greener :: Essays Papeers

The Seaweed Is Always Greener The idealized portrait of love painted in Disney’s The Little Mermaid leaves a sad impression for reality. The love at first sight and concept of a soul mate are not only portrayed as the romanticized â€Å"true love† (a common theme in Disney films) but are questioned by reliance on physical attributes. The necessity to change in order to obtain that love is portrayed to extremity. The film’s focus on â€Å"true love†, and the self sacrifice made to obtain it, give the target audience a notion that it is not only acceptable, but mandatory, to alter one’s self in order to achieve acceptance and love. Ariel’s state of being an unhappy teenage girl targets an audience not only of young girls, like most Disney films, but ones who are unhappy with their life. Her father is portrayed as over-reactive with a volatile temper, which many girls at such an age think of their fathers as being, though he is redeemed throughout the movie. She wants to travel, to run away, and is displeased with her physical attributes, all characteristics of many teenage girls. Her actions, however, make her a poor role model, as she goes through with all these changes. Eric says to Grimsby after being rescued by Ariel that †she’s the one.† All he remembered of her was her song and perhaps a dim recollection of her face. He has made the decision of his life mate based on that alone, a meeting in which he was not even conscious. All he had to do to fall in love with her was to be in her presence, not even awake. They never spoke, never even met eyes, and Eric doesn’t even know that this girl with whom he is in love is not even of the same species as he is. Ariel has a bit more information on Eric, but is caught by his appearance. She is somewhat acquainted with his character from her observations on the side of the boat, but only that which was shown in a brief window. In order to meet him, with no guarantee of success in winning his love, she sacrifices herself to the sea witch. She terminally abandons her family and friends, her home and her life, never able to return, in a gamble to attempt to fulfill her lustful desires.

Friday, October 11, 2019

Enviromental aspects,issues, impact and legislation

IntroductionThe universe ‘s environment is non illimitable. The demand to take into consideration the sustainability of the illimitable universe ‘s environment has brought about inventions in assorted techniques and methods of doing certain the environment is good sustained. In the class of realizing the sustainability of the universe ‘s environment, there have been divergent positions on the definitions and accounts of sustainability. Brundtland ( 1987 ) is of the position that, sustainable development involves run intoing the demands and aspirations of the present without compromising the ability to run into those of the hereafter. â€Å"We all have an impact on the environment by the mere act of populating from daily, Whitelaw ( 2004 ) † . This essay will take major stairss in turn toing environmental facets, issues, impact and the assorted statute law associated with them.STUDY SITE ( CASE STUDY )The instance survey is a location in the University of Hertfordshire. This location is a level within one of the halls of abode, i.e. level in one of the inn adjustment. Precisely, kitchen 33, wide hall, bishop rise Hatfield, Hertfordshire. The flat is made up of 12 suites, with 12 residents sharing one kitchen, two bathing suites, three lavatories, a common step instance, and other installations put in topographic point by the authorization of the University of HertfordshireSection ONEThe survey site is affected by some environmental issues. The facets, issues, impacts and the guiding statute laws are tabulated below.Table 1: Showing environmental facet, issues, impacts and steering statute laws on the survey site, Kitchen 33, Broad hall.AspectIssueImpactLegislation( A ) Waste 1 Sewage waste 2 Plastic waste 3 Paper waste 4 Leftovers from nutrient 5 Empty bottlesWaste productionWaste disposalWaste direction jobEnvironmental pollutionEnvironmental debasementLoss of utile landCost of recycling waste.cost of waste disposalThe WRA 1991 ( H2O resource act ) : subdivision 85Environmental protection act ( EPA ) 1990UK WEE RegulationThe landfill ( England and waste ) ordinances 2002( B ) ENERGY CONSUMPTION. High energy ingestion from 1.Electric cooker 2.Microwave oven 3.heaters in all suites. 4. Hot H2O from pat. 5. Electronic doors 6.Light bulbs.1.Carbon missions into the ambiance. 2.Heat coevals 3.Climate alteration1.Ozon bed depletion 2.Air pollution 3.Global warming 4.Loss of aesthetic value of the environment. 5.Green house consequence .1.Kyoto pact 1997 aimed at cut downing the emanation of green house gases. 2.Environmental protection act 1990 ; UK parliament 1990. 3.Clean air act, 1993. 4.Town and state planning ( Hazard Substance Control Act. ) 1990. 5. Montreal protocol September 1987 6.Clean air act,1993( C ) NATURAL RESOURCES 1.Furniture from wood. 2.Use of tabular arraies 3.Use of chairs 4.cupboards for hive awaying nutrient. 5.Plastics ; waste bins, home bases, spoons, 6.Use of glass 7.micro moving ridge oven. 8.Refridgerators. 9.Rug rugs in suites 10.metal beds used in the suites.1.Solid waste coevals. 2, Landfills 3.General waste.1.Deforestation. 2Oxygen depletion. 3.Emission of C dioxide. 4.loss of utile land. 5.loss of universe ‘s biodiversity.1.Refuse disposal agreeableness act,1978. 2.controlled waste ordinances ( S1588 ) 1992 3.Resouce recovery act 1970.( D ) Noise This is any signifier of sound that is non endurable or that disturbs the ear or the organic structure in general. It could be from peoples raucous interactions, music, pealing telephones, closing of doors, interrupting of home bases in the kitchen. Disturbing stairss on the step instance by residents and visitants.Noise productionPerturbations that wakes one up when resting or kipingInability to concentrate while readingUnnecessary distractions by opening and closing of doors.Extreme noise could impact the ear membranophoneThe statutory noise act ordinances 2006( Tocopherol ) HEALTH/SAFETYCarelessness, non attachment to UH adjustment service regulations.The impacts could be hurts from the usage of family utensilsContamination from minor unwellnesss, e.g cough which is easy contagiousThe smoke-free ( premises and enforcement ) ordinances 2006. Health and safety act. 1974. Statutory instrument No. 2677. 2002.WATER CONSUMPTION. 1.Water usage 2.Use of chemical 3.Use of detergents1.Chemical toxicity 2. Runing H2O from pat ( dripping H2O ) . 3.Dirty H2O fluxing through sink1.Pollution of land H2O 2.Contamination of shoal aquifer 3. depletion of inland H2O beginnings.1.Water industries act 1991, 2.Water resource act 1991 3. Land H2O ordinance act 1998.Section TWOSeveral environmental issues affect the survey site, wide hall of abode, kitchen 33. These issues include waste production, disposal, waste direction, energy ingestion, noise production, H2O usage, wellness and safety. The effects of these environmental issues vary in wide hall kitchen 33. A marking and ranking system was carried out to acquire the issue with the highest degree of importance. i.e, prioritizing the issues.Marking AND Ranking System:The ranking and marking system used in the facets and impacts analysis matrix Tinsley ( 2001 ) .2.1.2 THE ASPECTS AND IMPACTS ANALYSIS MATIXFor lucidity intent, a five point evaluation graduated table is used to sort each facet, environmental issues in relation to their corresponding environmental impact as: major, high, moderate, minimal, and low. Table 2.1: ASPECT CLASSIFICATION ( Tinsley 2001 )SEVERITY/RATINGASPECT CLASSIFICATIONASPECT CRITERIA1MinimumNo consequence of waste on the environment2LowLow consequence of waste3ModerateModerate waste production4HighHigh waste production presence and consequence5MajorMajor production of wasteTable 2.2 PROBABILITY OF OCCURENCE:The chance or likeliness of happening can be ascertained from a mark of 1 ( less than 20 % ) to a mark of 5 ( 81-100 % ) . Tinsley ( 2001 )PROBABILITY OF OCCURRENCEPROBABILITY %581-100461-80341-60221-4010-20Table 2.3SEVERITY/RATINGPROBABILITY ( 5 )MarkRanking1 Minimal 2 low 3 Moderate 4 High 5 MajorLikelihood Of HappeningProbability Multiplied By BadnessHarmonizing To Mark valueTable 2.4 PRIORITISING THE ISSUE USING SCORING AND RANKINGIssueBadness EvaluationProbabilityMarkRanking1 High waste production55202neodymium2High energy ingestion54251st3 Noise production53153rd4 Water use3395Thursday5 Waste direction3266Thursday6 sloppiness52104ThursdayTable 2,4 shows that energy ingestion records a high mark of 25 and ranked 1st. It can be concluded that high energy ingestion is the major environmental issue associated with wide hall, kitchen 33. This is followed by high waste production, ranked 2neodymiumwith a mark of 20. Noise production ranked 3rdwith a mark of 15, sloppiness ranked 4h and hold a mark of 10 while H2O usage and waste direction scored 9 & A ; 6 and ranked 5th & A ; 6Thursdayseverally. Emphasis will be on the two most of import issues in this essay.2.2 HIGH ENERGY UTILIZATIONMajor productions today depend on high usage of energy. The demand for high energy usage has been on the addition. Brady ( 2006 ) explains that energy use has led to the presence of heat on the Earth and besides accretion of green house gases. This affects climate alteration. Collins ( 1998 ) defines energy as the capacity to make work. And that energy could be in assorted signifiers. These include electrical energy, mechanical energy, heat energy, light energy, sound energy, possible energy, kinetic energy etc. The hall of abode ( kitchen33 ) is associated with high energy use. Among the issues prioritised on table 2,4, energy use scored 25 and ranked 1st.It is the major issue. Light bulbs are left on for a long clip, electric cooker is ever in usage for cookery and boiling H2O. A batch of energy is consumed through this procedure. Furthermore, the warmers in the suites are invariably in usage since the conditions is cold. The chief entryway door and doors taking to each of the 12 suites are electronically operated with the usage of cards. In the class of this, energy is utilised. The bulbs that light the transition are in most instances on, since no 1 is attached to the transition for adjustment. The showers for bathing, running lights-outs in the kitchen are besides beginnings of energy use. Due to energy use, clime alteration has led to sea degree rise. Sea degree rise could endanger the endurance of 1000s islands of whose highest points are frequently non more than a few meters above sea degree, every bit good as other low lying country ; with significant animate being and human population Vrolijk ( 2002 ) . In order to keep sustainability of the universe ‘s environment, the Kyoto Protocol set out lawfully adhering quantified emanation restriction and decrease committedness ( QELRSs ) for industrialised states, and targeted 5.2 % decrease in emanations from 1990, degrees for a basket of green house, by the commitment period of 2008-12, Vrolijk ( 2002 ) . Energy usage besides has a batch of impact on the Earth. The combustion of fossil fuels is a beginning of impact. Harmonizing to the University of Hertfordshire environmental forum, quality of life study ( 2006 ) , the primary cause of planetary clime alteration is the green house gas emanation distributed to places and industries into the ambiance. It went farther to province that, UK. relies upon carbon-base dodo fuels for the bulk of its energy beginnings. Coal and gas supply Stationss to bring forth electrical energy.2.3 WASTE PRODUCTION/ DISPOSAL / MANAGEMENTWaste could be described as a substance which constitute a scrap stuff or other unwanted excess substance originating from the application of any procedure, Bahu ( 1997 ) p24. Waste includes points, stuffs that are no more in utile. Cope ( 1983 ) , defines waste as the merchandises, spent residues and discarded constituents of industrial fabrication procedures, which have no realistic value. What could be taken as waste vari es with persons. Brady ( 2006 ) , states that human activities have the possible to foul the aquatic environment, for illustration domestic waste. Beginnings of waste could be ; places, fabricating industries, offices, dilapidated stuffs from edifices, , sewerage etc. The quality of life study ( 2006 ) , Hertfordshire Environmental Forum, states that, in 2005-2006, the entire waste produced in the state amounted to 2 million metric tons.Several environmental issues are associated with the survey site, a level in the University of Hertfordshire pupil ‘s adjustment. Waste production, disposal, direction are endangering issues in the level. As an country develops and population additions, the volume of waste H2O additions, ensuing in an addition in hurtful substances leaching into the local aquifer and pollute the H2O, which becomes insecure for usage, Black ( 1977 ) . Sewage waste are generated from lavatories, soiled H2O gotten from soaked pots poured into the sink constitute high waste production in the level. Furthermore, waste bins are in most instances overfilled and rubbish litters the floor of the kitchen. This is an environmental jeopardy which straight affects the wellness of the residents and the aesthetic value of the level. The pro duction of waste is so high that the Rota prepared by the University of Hertfordshire adjustment office can no longer assist the state of affairs. Traveling by the manner of the adjustment service ‘s agreement, the waste are supposed to be disposed off each twenty-four hours. But in most instances, waste bins are already overfilled before the terminal of the twenty-four hours. This brings in the issue of direction since the Rota does non work out the manner it was planned. In some instances the residents have to â€Å"break protocol† by non waiting till the terminal of the twenty-four hours before disposing off the overfilled waste bins. In 2003, 43 % of the entire waste produced in the UK was disposed off in landfill site, DEFRA ( 2007 ) . If this tendency occurs really frequently, the universe ‘s environmental sustainability is threatened and the aesthetic value of the environment is compromised. There are besides waste from pots left for many yearss. The pots become smelly as some of the proprietors leave place for yearss. From the study embarked upon in the class of this work, it was found that â€Å"mini† waste bins get overfilled in some of the suites. If sustainability must be embraced, so the flat in inquiry is yet to make so. From table 2.4, it is justifiable to state that, waste production with a mark of 20 and ranked 2nd is one of the chief environmental issue concerned with the survey site.Section THREE3.0The two issues that were identified with the instance survey ( wide hall, kitchen 33 ) as prioritised in table 2.4 are:Waste production, disposal and direction.High energy use.The above mentioned issues are prioritised as the two chief issues whose impact are more on the hall of abode ( kitchen 33 ) . It will be of import to explicate and propose solutions to the jobs caused by these issues. Here the benefit of environmental direction system, if implemented will be explained to the authorization of the University of Hertfordshire.ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT SYSTEMDefinition:Sheldon ( 2003 ) described direction system as a simple manner of traveling information around inside an organisation. He moreover states that, its map is to determine reaching of information at the right topographic point at the right clip for a good determination to be made. An environmental direction system takes into history organisation forces, construction, be aftering map, operation, procedure and even its accustomed pattern. As opposed to fiscal and quality facets, it is the environmental facets of an organisation ‘s activities, merchandises and services that are capable to direction, Sheldon ( 2003 ) . In order to accomplish consequences through the usage of environmental direction system attack, a policy frame work is needed. Jaccard ( 2005 ) , sees policy as, an attempt by public governments to bring on action, and these include ; information proviso, ordinances, revenue enhancement, subsidies and the determination to take direct action. Brady ( 2006 ) , defines environmental direction system as a structured frame work for pull offing an administration ‘s important environmental impact. There are a figure of international criterion to be met or pursued by administrations who intend to run within the environmental scene. ISO 14001 is the most internationally recognized EMS usher and it is one of the wide scope of environmental criterions in the ISO 14000 series. ISO 14001 requires organisations to use proper attention and control in covering with the environment and that, administrations impact on the environment should be controlled, Whitelaw ( 2004 ) . An environmental impact is any alteration caused the environment whether adverse or goodBENEFIT ASSOCIATED WITH EMS FOR THE UNIVERSITY OF HERTFORDSHIREThe environmental issues and impact concerned with the University of Hertfordshire ‘s Hall of Residence ( Broad Hall, Kitchen 33 ) exactly, should be addressed. Here the nidation of EMS is suggested. With th e usage of an environmental direction system, the needed legislative and regulative attachment will be implemented. This execution will better on the University of Hertfordshire, particularly, conformity with the assorted statute law that are already in topographic point. Ana EMS will assist the University save cost in the country of energy ingestion. An analysis of the benefit and cost realised from an EMS can assist turn to of import managerial inquiries, Yiridoe et Al, ( 2003 ) . The University, with the usage of EMS, could determine whether environmental activities have resulted in increased operational volume or lessening in operating cost. By affecting the full work force in a cost decrease programme, spreads would be bridged and encouraging consequences are achieved, Hill et Al, ( 2004 ) . The University of Hertfordshire could develop its staff in line with established regulative and legislative criterions to accomplish high environmental public presentation. In the country of waste production, the University direction should endeavor to transport out a everyday cheques on the suites and kitchen of the hall in inquiry. Adopting an EMS would assist the University embracing method of waste direction. For illustration, recycling of waste as practiced with the usage of incinerators can be adopted Hepbasli ( 2008 ) . Increasing the figure of waste bins on a regular basis or frequent disposal will be of import. Embracing an EMS by the University direction will assist work out job of such nature. It is besides recommended that, punishments be awarded mistaking residents who fail to adhere to the new ordinances. The UK authorities has a mark of 1,500MW of new electricity bring forthing capacity from renewable beginnings by the twelvemonth 2000, and estimations that by 2025, renewable may provide between 5 % and 25 % of current UK electricity, Hill et Al ( 2004 ) . This could be good achieve with the execution of an EMS. This will in no uncertainty cut down the cost incurred from over ingestion of energy in the level within wide hall of abode. Adopting an EMS would besides cut down the sum of emanations into the ambiance, since it will take to a decrease in the combustion of fossil fuels. Hepbasli ( 2008 ) is of the position that renewable energy offers a scope of benefit, such as, lessening in external dependance on energy and besides hike local and regional industries in the country of employment. The University ‘s corporate image would hold a face lift through the execution of an EMS. Adopting an EMS will heighten environmental public presentation of the University in the country of waste direction and decrease in energy use. The University may besides derive a really high credence and acknowledgment from assorted supervising governments and bureaus, Especially, authorities governments, holding been enhanced by following an EMS. When coal and gas are burnt for energy, C dioxide ( CO2 ) is released together with a scope of other gases including green-house gases, ( quality of life study 2006 ) . With the application of EMS, the decrease of energy ingestion could be achieved and more so, several attempt should be made to guarantee dependance on renewable energy beginning. A good implemented EMS will be utile in this way. Making certain that occupant exchange off their electrical contraptions, i.e. bulbs, warmer, micro moving ridges, kettle-heater, and cooker etc in due times should be followed up. Environmental direction system can non be ruled out in seeking to accomplish a sustainable development.Decision:The being of adult male is dependent on assorted factors or phenomena. The environment seems to be the umbrella under which adult male lives continuously and sustainably. Though, accomplishing a perfect environmental sustainability is still being pursued, the environment is continuously faced with impacts, ensuing from environmental issues caused by adult male. Human activities are beginnings of environmental impacts. Since a sustainable environment must be achieved, persons should escalate attempts towards developing and protecting the environment.Adopting of good methods, techniques, and policies, for illustration EMS, is recommended to accomplish environmental sustainability.MentionsBahu R. , Cretteden B. , Hara O. ( 1997 )Management of Process Industry Waste. Institute of Chemical Engineers, Rugby, p207. Brundtland, G. H. ( 1987 )Our Common Future:The Report of The universe Commission on Environment and Development, Oxford university imperativeness Brady, J. ( 2006a ) .Environmental Management in administration: Evaluating Environmental Performance, the IEMA Handbook, p251. Brady, J. ( 2006b ) .Environmental Management in administration: Climate alteration and energy, the IEMA Handbook, p364 Brady, J. ( 2006c )Environmental Management in administration: Key environmental subject, the IEMA Handbook, p366 Black, A. ( 1977 )Water pollution engineering. Reston publication. P220 Cope, Fuller and Willet ( 1983 )The Scientific Management of Hazardous Waste. Cambridge University Press. Collins G. ( 1998 ) English lexicon, new edition. Harper Collins publication. p182 Defra ( 2007 )Sustainable development indexs in your pocket: Department of nutrient and rural personal businesss, London, p43 Hertfordshire Environmental Forum ( 2006 ) . Quality of life study p39 Hepbasli, A. ( 2008 ) A cardinal reappraisal on energetic and appraisal of renewable energy beginning for the hereafter.Renewable and sustainable energy reappraisal.12,issue 3. P593-661 Hill, J. , Marshal, I. , Priddy, C. ( 2004 ) Waste decrease.Profiting concern and the environment.2131-36 Hill, J. , Marshal, I. , Priddy C. ( 2004 ) Energy coevals capacity.Profiting concern and theenvironment.2115-23 Jaccard, M. ( 2005 )Sustainable dodo fuels. Cambridge University imperativeness. p260 NetRegs ( 2007 ) . NetRegs: Environmental counsel for your concern. hypertext transfer protocol: //www.netregs.gov.uk/ . Site accessed: 9/02/2008 Sheldon, C. , Yoxon, M. ( 2003 )Installing Environmental Management System. A measure by measure guide. Earthscan publications, London, revised edition.p4 Tinsley, S. ( 2001 )Environmental Plans Demystified:A usher to implementing ISO 14001.Spon imperativeness, pp 240. Vrolijk C. ( 2002 )Climate alteration and power. Royal institute of international personal businesss. p3 Whitelaw K. ( 2004 )ISO 14001:Environmental System Handbook. Elsevier Butterworth, London, p 237. Yiridoe, K. , Marett, E. , Clark, S. , Gordon, R. , Duinker, P. ( 2003 ) ISO 14001: EMS standard enrollment determination among Canadian administrations,Agribusiness19,p439-457

Thursday, October 10, 2019

Citizens Identities in Public Documents

Contained herein is an article critique regarding exposure of private information through digitization projects that allow unrestricted public access.The analysis will specifically deal with John Harney’s Protecting Citizens Identities in Public Documents that highlights how a County document preservation department dealt with the issue of protecting public information effectively.In the understanding that exposing private data such as social security, bank account numbers and title deed, the Maricoba County Recorder embarked on an elaborative process of scanning and removing all the sensitive information from documents without diluting usefulness.The County’s efforts are important considering the dangers of exposing such data to other people. Indeed, the exposure would make it easy for phishers to collect information that is later used for identity theft. Harney’s article is therefore an important eye-opener that it is possible for society to utilize new technol ogies effectively without posing dangers to individuals’ private lives. Maricoba County’s processes should therefore be regarded as best practices in digitization field.This is especially because members of the public would be more supportive of such projects and therefore be more willing to volunteer donations and propositions. Such collaboration would help in the process of digitizing the millions, maybe billions, of documents and information whose digitization would improve public awareness on past and current issues affective respective society.In addition, the end of public’s phobia of digitization and privacy will indeed be help in motivating technology makers in improving ways of improving security features further. John Harney’s Protecting Citizens Identities in Public Documents is in this regard an important contribution to the debate of digitization and information security.ReferencesHarney, J. (2008). Protecting Citizens Identities in Public Do cuments. Retrieved March    3, 2009, from http://www.infonomics-digital.com/infonomics/20080304/?pg=60